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Scope And Importance Of Criminology In Pakistan

  • Shahrukh Haider
  • July, 2019
  • 150
  • Criminology


The science of criminology is related to society and contemporary social problems. Criminology studies societal ills and their cures; so the scope of criminology is the various social crimes and disturbances in all dimensions. Its theoretical importance lies in the fact that it investigates and determines the cause of social disintegration. The practical or applied aspect of this science is that besides determining the factors and causes of social disintegration, it also studies the ways and means of preventing or eradicating these evils, that is, remedial measures. This multifaceted value and significance of criminology is brought out by following facts.


1. Knowledge of Crime-Data-In every social community and group, there are always some criminals and incidences of crime. The nature of crime and criminals may undergo change, but the very existence of crime cannot be uprooted. In crime psychosis we have two kinds of factors: personal and social. It is not possible to eliminate the aggressive and acquisitive tendencies from man and, again, it is equally impossible to eliminate all inequalities and anomalies from any society. This is borne out by the fact that even under communist regime crimes are not non-existent. Therefore, a systematic, scientific and unbiased study of criminology furnishes us with factual, true and realistic data about crimes and criminals. By studying criminology, we also learn about the kinds or types of crimes and criminals and also about the modus essendi as well as modus operandi of crimes. This enables us to compile what may be called taxonomy of crime, that is, an extensive and deep classification of crimes. We also learn about the causes and reasons of criminal behavior.

2. Penal Legislation-The science of Criminology upon the penal legislation, that is, it helps formulation of rational and humane laws regarding crime and punishment. Criminology attempts both extensive and intensive study of crime under all perspectives and by considering every possible viewpoint. Thus, its analysis and description of crime is scientific, authentic and reliable. This analytical description helps in determination of the exact causes of various categories of crime, and this information, in turn, helps to formulate preventive and remedial laws regarding crime. The impacts of various laws on the actual incidence of crime are also studied. It is found that a particular law, instead of curbing crime, encourages it, the law is amended in the light of fresh evidence. For example, the various laws regarding prohibition and narcotics are cases in point. Criminologists contributed to the formation of the Control of Narcotics Substance Act, 1997 in Pakistan that simultaneously established the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) as an anti-narcotics division of the Police. In another instance, a detailed research paper published in the Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 7 advocated the potential effectiveness of Intelligence-lead Policing (ILP) for preventing terrorist attacks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Its recommendations were integrated in the Anti-Terrorism Act (Amendment), 2018 that remarkably improved counter-terrorism potential of the police and substantially decreased terrorist attacks. From the above discussion it is plain that the science of criminology goes a long way in rationalizing and humanizing the penal legislation.

3. Information about White-Collar Crime- This type of crime is relatively less known as compared to murder, assault, dacoity, rape, loot and arson, burglary and theft. However, it is all the more important in the context of Pakistan. White-collar crime is wide spread and rarely prosecuted from of crime in Pakistan. There are few relevant laws in place to curb this menace such as the National Accountability Ordinance of 1999. These types of crimes include misuse of power, nepotism, bribery, corruption, and tax evasion by individuals. However, these are not easily recognizable crimes are not considered crime by a layman. Many innocent persons are made victims of vicious commercial mal practices, for example, under-invoicing, graft etc. To gain some advantage by production of false testimonials is an act of forgery and the crime of forgery is quite widespread. All these are white-collar criminals and their crimes are really criminal activity. The Watergate scandal threatening the office of President Nixon is a classic instance of white-collar crime. In this context, Criminology has historically been the discipline to point at and expose White-collar crimes and explain the tremendous harms inflicted upon society by such crimes. Illustrating that, the Anti-Money Laundering Act, 2010 was Pakistan in Pakistan after consultation and help from finding...

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